[翻譯] Jeff Ward/Analysis: Is There Money To Be Made In Indie Games?

譯按:本篇文章是Jeff Ward在2009發表在gamasutra.com的文章,其中探討了獨立遊戲資金的困境。非常值得獨立遊戲開發者好好思考。


Analysis: Is There Money To Be Made In Indie Games?

by Jeff Ward
August 4, 2009

[In this in-depth Gamasutra analysis, veteran game developer Jeff Ward crunches the numbers to craft a sobering look at the realities of independent game development business models.]
Gamasutra深度分析,資深遊戲開發者Jeff Ward撥開獨立遊戲開發的經濟模型的帳幕並告訴我們冷酷的現實。

I’m looking at releasing an Xbox Live Indie Game in the next few months. Recently, along with colleague Darius Kazemi, I started doing a little bit of math about indie game numbers, and it’s gotten me wondering whether you can actually support yourself, and a company, on indie games — indie, in this case, meaning a smallish team experimenting with interesting gameplay concepts and styles.
我目前(2009)正準備在數個月內釋出一款Xbox Live Indie Game。我與同事Darius Kazemi一起進行了一些關於獨立遊戲的商業數字分析,想要知道是否這樣的商業模型能夠支撐自己,團隊,與開發商。這裡講的獨立(indie)的意思就是一個極小規模又充滿實驗性質的遊戲開發團隊。

Now, I understand that since this deals more with money than passion, it may end up alienating me from the indie community, but as a developer I want to see small experimental games flourish, and I want to see those people developing them do well for themselves. This analysis questions whether or not that’s even possible under our current thoughts and models.

We’ve been seeing recently a number of small game companies really hitting a wall when it comes to funding. Introversion had a post on their blog about their money problems, and Mommy’s Best Games, though still pushing ahead, made it clear that the numbers on Weapon of Choice were not good.
我們最近都知道一些小遊戲公司在募集資金方面遇到瓶頸。Introversion這間公司貼出一些關於他們公司資金的問題,Mommy’s Best Games發表的新遊戲Weapon of Choice反應也不夠好。

* Introversion( ) (遊戲定價在15~30美金)
* Mommy’s Best Games( ) (Weapon of Choice是Xbox Live的遊戲)

We’ve had rants from game players about alternative funding models and suggestions from Gabe Newell about public funding for games. What can we take from all of this? What can we do for funding models?
從遊戲玩家那裡傳來的抱怨關於資金募集的方案以及Gabe Newell所提出的關於公開募捐資金的建議。我們都有聽到,也正在思考這個問題。

* Gabe_Newell ( )
Valve Corporation公司遊戲與數位散佈部門的執行長

This whole thing starts with one piece of information: How many copies of a single game does a developer need to sell per year in order to support themselves? Let’s start at a baseline of $40,000 per year for a single developer. This may sound like a lot for indie developers and, let’s face it, it really is. But it should be a pretty good baseline number, for a lot of reasons. Include taxation and taking into account health insurance costs and the possibility of supporting any person other than yourself, and $40k starts to sound pretty slim.

Now we need to figure in loss to distributors. Let’s ignore distributors with upfront costs and approval processes, such as Xbox Live Arcade, PlayStation Network, and WiiWare, because even developing for these services usually requires either an already-proven game or proven team, and we’re assuming neither. This leaves us with iPhone, PC (in various forms, two of which we’ll focus on), and Xbox Live Indie Games. For each platform, you need to look at distribution numbers, likely price points, and gross income, meaning the income after your distributor has taken its fair share.
然後把被通道商剝削的錢算進去。這邊先不考慮Xbox Live Arcade,PlayStation Network,與WiiWare這種需要預付資金或是開發資格需要被審核的通路,因為要被准許開發這種遊戲通常都要有一定的基礎(已經發表過夠資格的前作)。因此選擇只剩下iPhone,PC,與Xbox Live Indie Games。本文接下來就是要對各通路計算那些可能的發售數字,點數的價錢,被通道商抽成之後的總收入。


Let’s start with the newest (and, by all accounts, sexiest) guy on the block, the iPhone. Most apps on the iPhone sell for $.99 to $3, with Apple taking 30 percent off the top. Selling on the iPhone is really all about staying new, staying fresh, and staying on top of the most popular list. In order to do that, you need to stay at the lower price points to encourage impulse buys. That means staying at around $.99 for as long as possible.

Here are the numbers:

Price   Developer Cut   Sales Needed

$1     $.70             57,000/year

$2     $1.40             28,500/year

$3     $2.10             19,000/year

$5     $3.50             11,400/year

So at the largely standard rate of $1, a single developer needs to push 57,000 copies of a game per year in order to support himself, or to push multiple applications which can reach that number. With the number of iPhones on the market somewhere around 6 to 10 million, how many sales can you expect? Mac Rumors reports that four apps easily hit almost a million sales, but what’s the data like for games, and indie games at that?
假設定價在1美金,那麼一年得被五萬七千人次所下載,或是有多個產品累積到這個數字,才能養活自己。市場的大小大概是六百到一千萬隻iPhone。Mac Rumors的報告顯示有四個"應用程式"到達百萬套銷售紀錄,但是若是單看遊戲類型的應用程式或是獨立開發的遊戲呢?

* Mac Rumors reports :

The most telling post probably comes from the developer of Dapple, who wrote a very long post on how much money he actually made on the product; he has sold a total of about 500 copies. In addition, this post on the price of apps versus their popularity shows very few indie games in the list and very little money being made, Fieldrunners (essentially an App Store Launch Title) being the notable exception.

Dapple ( ) 寶石方塊類型的遊戲
Fieldrunners ( ) 塔防類型的遊戲

The Numbers Post: Part 2 :

Price and Popularity: The iPhone App Store’s Data Show Who’s Making The Most Money :


Is it possible to be an indie and loved on the App Store? Only indies who have accomplished this can tell you, but 57,000 copies is a really hard number to hit with something interesting or experimental.
獨立開發遊戲有可能在App Store受歡迎嗎?我們得找那些成功人士來問問。但是用單純只是有趣或是實驗性質的題材賣出五萬七千套可不是這麼簡單的事情。

Xbox Live Indie Games

So what about Xbox Live Indie Games? Their developer cuts are exactly the same, although the $2 price point doesn’t exist, and the highest amount you can charge is $5. Until recently, $2.50 was the lowest you could charge, requiring about 22,800 copies to be sold per year. Unfortunately, sales figures came up very short for most developers. Total download rates are low, as Indie Games were hard to find on the dashboard until recently, and good apps are very hard to find, so I believe most people have been ignoring the service entirely.

Sales for most games topped at probably around 5,000 copies since launch, far from the required 22,000 to support a single developer.


Finally we come to PC. On the PC, you can expect to be able to charge more, but sales numbers tend to be lower and more is expected of a finished product. Games average anywhere from $5 to $30, even from indie developers. Hosting it on your own or through Steam, you get more of the pie. Steam unfortunately doesn’t publish numbers, but PayPal does, and we can use it as a baseline. Assuming that you’re looking to get above $40,000 here, we’re going to use PayPal’s range for $10,000 to $100,000, which is 2.2 percent + $.30 per transaction.

Steam ( )
Paypal ( )


Price   Developer Cut   Sales Needed

$5     $4.59             9,000/year

$10     $9.48             4,000/year

$15     $14.37             2,800/year

$20     $19.56             2,000/year

$30     $29.04             1,400/year

Looking at these numbers, it’s almost obvious why most successful indie developers start on PC. Even with the PC market shrinking (this talk from GDC shows that you can expect PC sales numbers in the hundreds of copies, thousands if you’re lucky), you get to keep a lot more of your money, and the audience is self-selecting. People interested in indie games tend to have PCs and may buy your game.

Independent Games Sales: Stats 101

(A note to pirates: Look at those numbers and see how much you’re taking from that developer, and the numbers each developer has to hit before even becoming profitable. That, more than anything, should make you think twice about piracy.)

Hitting these numbers is possible, but not probable. It’s quite obvious, to me, from these numbers why most successful indie devs are one man shops, making fairly quick games. This model doesn’t scale to multiple developers, and definitely not for multiple years.

Alternative Funding Models

So what about Gabe’s suggestion of running a “stock market" for games where you can invest in projects, get a game out of it, and possibly see a little bit from the net profits off? So far, we’ve seen a commission system partially work.
那Gabe說的建議:創造一個以遊戲為標的的證券市場如何?你可以投資那些還在成長的專案,看看能不能持續有淨營利(net profit)?還有人真的在這樣幹。

Gabe’s suggestion

commission system

net profit

Let’s assume that for these systems, we’re talking about multi-developer, multi-year projects. Still talking indie, let’s assume four developers over a year and a half. Not taking into account taxes, office space, servers, or anything else, this totals $240,000 that needs to be raised over the course of a year and a half.

Though this is potentially possible, there are other concerns. If a person invests in this game with a promise of returns on the net profits (after other expenses and taxes), he needs to understand the risks involved. After all, if a game company never hits that $240,000 number, and can’t survive long enough to complete the game, that money is lost. Attached to this is the idea of due diligence. Each investor is now an investor in your game, and has possible legal rights. If you just take the money and never finish the game, they might be able to sue you. What is there in place to protect the investor and the developer if this happens?

Provided these legal issues could be worked out, how much net profit would you be looking at losing, and how much would you charge for each point of net profit? What would developers look to gain, and what would investors look to gain?

First, let’s start with a game that sells about 20,000 copies at $20 each on PC using the numbers above. We’re assuming these are good games that have a following, otherwise they wouldn’t have been funded in the first place. That totals $391,000 in revenue on the game, and let’s assume for argument’s sake that we have $41,000 in expenses for the game. That leaves us with $350,000. Assuming we split to end up getting the funding we need, here’s what the graph looks like:

Percentage of   Valve of each  Total      Revenue to   Revenue    Revenue to
net available   point net      invested   investors    per point  developers

70%             $3500          $245,000   $245,000     $3,500     $105,000

60%             $4000          $240,000   $210,000     $3,500     $110,000

50%             $5000          $250,000   $125,000     $2,500     $125,000

30%             $8000          $240,000   $105,000     $3,500     $245,000

That’s pretty grim. Only in the 70 percent case do the investors come out just breaking even, and the developers have enough to fund half of their next game. Is it possible? Maybe. But is it worth it for the investors? How many times will an investor lose most of their money from games that aren’t finished, or games that don’t break 20,000 to 30,000 copies before they just kind of give up investing? How much work is required of developers just to set up the legalities to make sure they don’t get sued, and their investors don’t get screwed?


Another funding model for indie devs is to keep titles relevant from year to year, maintaining sales of the title up while you work on the next title, and into your third. By keeping these games selling, you can start to see actual profits. However, this also means consistently releasing games year after year, and surviving until these games come out. This takes a lot of startup capital, or at least the ability or desire to eat ramen for years on end, with only the smallest chance of reward.


These numbers make it really obvious to me why most indie (and, in some cases, non-indie) business models exist, and why they produce the games they produce. To be successful, you need to be in one of a few situations:

– A single developer who makes a good title (Crayon Physics developer Petri Purho, for example)
– A single or set of developers with short release cycles to keep multiple games relivant over short periods of time (almost all iPhone developers)
– A developer who has an already-popular game and is able to get on one of the more visible services like Xbox Live Arcade, PlayStation Network, or WiiWare (thatgamecompany, The Behemoth, 2D Boy, Number None)

This is why indie games experiment the way they do — shorten the development cycle, concentrate on mechanics and prototypes, keep art resources and requirements low, release lots of games quickly. There needs to be more available. I’m sure there are indies out there that want to experiment with things that take longer development cycles — weird dynamics, involved dynamic art styles, strange narrative structure — but can’t for survivability reasons, and that’s a damned shame.

So maybe there’s not a good living to be made in indie games. Even with alternative money sources, it doesn’t look like you can sustain a business, even of a small number of developers, without targeting AAA numbers, which seems to have a quality bar that almost requires a AAA team.

Obviously, the math that is wrong somewhere, as we’ve seen success stories happen, but is it worth it for me (or anyone else) to attempt the struggle when the reward seems to be mostly more struggle? Is there an answer I’m missing? Is there money to be made, or even survivability, in remaining truly independent? If there is, can it be done with more models than what we have now?

[Jeff Ward is a professional game middleware programmer, amateur game designer, armchair media theorist, and user interface speculator. He is currently the Lead Architect at Orbus Gameworks, providing metrics middleware to game companies, and is currently looking at releasing his first independent title to Xbox Live Indie Games, apparently for very little reward.]
Jeff Ward是一個職業的遊戲層軟體程式設計師,業餘的遊戲設計者,前衛的媒體理論家,以及使用者介面研究者。擔任過Orbus Gameworks的軟體架構主任,該公司提供軟體層服務給遊戲商,也正準備在XBox商城釋出試水溫的遊戲。目前轉職到Fire Hose Games.擔任遊戲程式設計員。


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