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[翻譯] 遊戲專案為何成功系列之五:提升團隊之路


The Game Outcomes Project, Part 5: What Great Teams Do
遊戲專案為何成功系列之五:提升團隊之路
網誌版:http://wp.me/pBAPd-qT
原文網址:http://gamasutra.com/blogs/PaulTozour/20150126/235024/The_Game_Outcomes_Project_Part_5_What_Great_Teams_Do.php
縮網址:http://tinyurl.com/o272zsl
撰文:Paul Tozour
繁體中文翻譯:NDark
20150126
譯按:本文是一篇統計學專業文章,若有翻譯不正確的文句,請以原文為主。

This article is the conclusion to a 5-part series:

The Game Outcomes Project team includes Paul Tozour, David Wegbreit, Lucien Parsons, Zhenghua “Z” Yang, NDark Teng, Eric Byron, Julianna Pillemer, Ben Weber, and Karen Buro.

本文是五篇系列中的結論。

想要知道問卷的方法論,請參閱部落格頁面:http://intelligenceengine.blogspot.com/2014/11/game-outcomes-project-methodology-in.html

我們問卷的原始資料在,有興趣的朋友可逕自取用分析。

“遊戲專案為何成功"團隊成員包含Paul Tozour,David WegbreitLucien ParsonsZhenghua “Z” YangNDark TengEric ByronJulianna PillemerBen Weber,及Karen Buro。

The Game Outcomes Project, Part 5: What Great Teams Do

遊戲專案為何成功系列之五:提升團隊之路

The following is a summary of our top 40 findings in the 2014 Game Outcomes Project.  We’ve listed the factors in order from most to least important below, sorted by the strength of their correlations.

本篇文章是我們在2014年遊戲專案為何成功此計畫最重要的四十個結論。我們依照重要性及關聯性排列這些要項的順序。

Our study was based on a 120-question survey of 273 developers.  The resulting data led to some surprising conclusions: we discovered enormous cultural differences between teams, and most of the cultural factors we looked at correlated very strongly with project outcomes.  This article explains what differentiates the most successful game development teams from the rest, according to our survey data.

我們的研究是基於兩百七十三個開發者針對一百二十個問題的問卷回應。數據透露出令人驚訝的結論:我們發現了團隊的文化差異,其中大部分都與團隊的產出有著強烈關聯性。本文以問卷的數據解釋成功的遊戲開發團隊與其他團隊之間的差異。

A large part of our survey was based on team effectiveness models defined in the books Leading Teams: Setting the Stage for Great Performances, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, and 12: The Elements of Great Managing. Our first surprise was that out of the 46 questions we asked related to these models, 39 (85%) were strongly correlated with every single outcome factor in exactly the way the models predicted, and 5 of the remaining 6 questions correlated with all but one or two outcome factors.

問卷的大部分都基於團隊效率模型理論:領導團隊:設定高效率的舞台團隊的五個障礙良好管理的十二個基石。首先令我們驚訝的是依照這些模型所定義的四十六個問題中,三十九個(百分之八十五)都與每一項產出分數達到強烈相關。而剩下的六個中的五個也都至少與一到兩項產出分數相關。

So before you do anything else, pick up those books and read them.  This goes double if you’re in any sort of leadership position.

在你進行任何改變前,如果讀者是管理職位,不妨挑選建議的書籍來閱讀,必定獲益良多。

Just because we’re doing game development doesn’t mean the fundamentals of organizational effectiveness are somehow different from other industries, or that the decades of validated management research done elsewhere is magically rendered irrelevant.

We are not a unique and special snowflake.

不會因為我們做的是遊戲開發,組織效率的運作原理就會不同,幾十年來已經被驗證的管理研究都在我們產業中驗證。我們不應自認為是天之驕子。

Bear in mind that this article is an opinion piece – an editorial that extrapolates from our analysis of the Game Outcomes Project data.  It includes our own subjective interpretations of what our correlations and other analyses actually imply, but only where we felt it was justified by our data (or the models that inspired our survey design, where the data agreed strongly with those models).

但僅記本文僅是提供建議,也是從數據中分析而出的推論。文中也包含我們對於關聯性與分析目標所得出的的主觀意見,尤其是當我們覺得這樣解釋數據是有合理性的情形下。(或是當這些數據強烈地印證這些啟發我們的問卷設計的模型時)

If you disagree with any of our interpretations, read the articles (Parts 1, 2, 3, & 4) and form your own conclusions.  You can also download the raw data here in case you’d like to double-check our analysis or investigate the data on your own.

假如你對我們的推論並不滿意,請回顧我們的系列文章,並組織你的想法。你也可以下載我們問卷的原始資料,逕自取用分析。

The Top 40: What Great Teams Do

提升團隊之路的前四十個該注意的事

1. Great game development teams have a clear, shared vision of the game design and the development plan and an infectious enthusiasm for that vision [1, 2, 3].  Having a viable, compelling, clear, and well-communicated shared vision was more important than any other factor we looked at.  Make absolutely certain that the vision for the final version of the game is clear and well-communicated throughout the team, and that team members share a similar vision of the game throughout development.  Leads in particular need to communicate a consistent shared vision for the game, carefully communicate changes to the design or the development plan, and resolve any conflicts of vision swiftly and professionally.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊擁有一個清楚且公開的遊戲設計願景,開發計畫,及對此願景的熱情。一個可行,具說服力,清楚,充分溝通的願景比起其他的要素更為重要。請確保對團隊充分溝通這個遊戲最終成品的願景,確保每個人都清楚知道它是甚麼。管理階層尤其必須把遊戲的願景持續溝通,在設計及開發計畫改變時也必須小心地溝通,順利且專業地化解由願景變動而來的衝突。

Great development teams care deeply about the vision for the game [4].  They have an infectious enthusiasm that sharpens their focus.  This enthusiasm is a huge driver of positive outcomes, and a lack of enthusiasm is a clear warning sign of problems that need to be addressed.  It may mean the vision needs work, or it could be a people problem.  Investigate carefully and don’t jump to conclusions.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊深刻地重視遊戲的願景。因為這會產生有感染力的熱情來強化專注。而熱情驅動正面產出,缺乏熱情就是一連串待處理問題開始的病徵。有可能是因為願景必須調整,或是團隊存在人的問題。小心地挖掘原因,不要太快下結論。

2. Great game development teams carefully manage the risks to the design vision and the development plan [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會小心地管理設計與開發計畫的風險。

They are very cautious about making changes in development that deviate too far from the vision.  Fundamental design changes in development are a major driver of increased costs and risks, and are often a sign of deeper problems.

When they disagree about game design, they resolve the disagreement swiftly.  They do not ignore it.

假如開發計畫偏離願景太遠的時候,必須小心地做出改變。開發過程中造成的設計基底變動會加大成本與風險,引發更多問題。當對於遊戲設計意見不同時,要立即化解歧異,絕不要忽視。

If core design elements DO change, great gamedev teams clearly communicate those changes to the team and justify them.

Some believe that a leader’s job is to “hire talented people and get out of the way.”  This is a deeply flawed notion.  A leader must constantly and proactively work to identify and mitigate any potential threats to the project or the team.

假如核心玩法真的必須改變,優秀的遊戲開發團隊必須清楚的把這些改變與團隊溝通,詳盡地解釋。

有些人相信領導者的工作是"雇用優秀的人讓他們工作"。這完全搞錯了。領導者的義務是持續且主動地預見且減輕潛在的專案或團隊問題。

3. Members of great game development teams buy into the decisions that are made [1].  If there’s no buy-in, it’s a clear warning sign of deeper problems.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會對自己所做的承諾買單。當反之,不願承諾表示團隊狀況是亮黃燈。

4. Great game development teams avoid crunch [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊不加班。

Extended overtime seems to actually makes games worse overall.  As far as our data is able to tell, crunch absolutely does NOT make games better.  Our data provides no convincing evidence that any overtime is helpful in any way.  Not even a little bit.  It has negative correlations with outcomes and positive correlations with poor planning, miscommunication, turnover, and a disrespectful working environment, especially when crunch is mandatory instead of voluntary.

加班會讓開發的遊戲落到谷底。至少我們的數據顯示,加班絕不會讓遊戲更好。我們的數據顯示,沒有證據說加班會幫助開發,一點也沒有。加班與產出有負關聯性,而加班與差勁的計畫,溝通不良,流動率,沒有尊嚴的工作環境有正相關,特別是非自願加班的情形下。

But even if you don’t buy our conclusion that crunch itself makes games worse, you should take a good, hard look at all of the other evidence that crunch increases burnout, disengagement, turnover, and project error rates  … along with the extensive evidence in the broader management research showing that it also harms employees’ health, productivity, relationships, morale, engagement, and decision-making ability, while increasing the risk of alcohol abuse.

The very best results in our study came from teams that were focused and cohesive and worked the LEAST amount of overtime.

如果你不相信我們對於加班會讓產品變差的結論,你該好好認真地檢視那些加班會導致倦怠,消極,離職,低良率的證據。那些針對管理的廣泛研究都顯示這樣的證據,加班會對員工的健康生產力,人際關係,士氣,積極性,決策能力產生影響,甚至會造成酗酒問題。

If you lead a team, try this exercise: ask your team to work no more than 40 hours a week for 3 months, with the specific goal of increasing productivity and focus as much as possible in those 40 hours.  Genuinely work to optimize your team’s productivity during normal working hours and see how much more you can do with less.

And even if crunching were effective, it’s pathetic to ask your team to put in more hours per week before you’ve genuinely done everything in your power to maximize productivity in the first 40.

假如你帶領一個團隊,試試看挑戰你的團隊三個月的期限內每周不要工作超過四十個小時,同時在這樣的條件下想辦法維持或增加效率。有才能的員工就會在正常工時中把想辦法團隊的效率提升。

即使加班是有效率的,若不先在正常工時中把效能拉起來,就去要求團隊加班是一件本末倒置的悲劇。

5. Great gamedev teams build an environment where it’s safe to take a risk and stick your neck out to say what needs to be said [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會營造能夠安全承擔風險的工作環境,讓員工能暢所欲言。

If team members don’t feel safe and comfortable speaking openly, or harbor any worries about political blowback from speaking their minds, you’re likely to miss some very important things.  There could be a hole in your boat, but if people are afraid to call attention to it, you might never find out, and the boat could sink.

假如團隊成員覺得發表言論會遭遇譏諷,打壓,政治力秋後算帳,可能團隊已經出了大問題。如同船殼出現漏洞,而船員害怕呼救,結果就是一起滅頂。

Don’t let the boat sink.  Don’t let holes go unpatched.  Build an environment where everyone can give and receive honest feedback without getting defensive or political, and respect others’ right to do so.

Some very compelling validated management science shows that this kind of “psychological safety" is essential for building high-performing, learning teams.

不要讓團隊沉入水中,不要讓忽視問題。建立一個成員可以分享心底意見而不會遭受責難,反而會因為發言而受到尊敬的工作環境。

6. Great gamedev teams do everything they can to minimize turnover [1] and avoid changing the team composition [2] except for growing it when needed.  This includes avoiding disruptive re-organizations as much as possible [3].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會盡一切可能減少流動率,固定團隊的組成,除非必須擴張。也盡可能不要進行破壞性的打散重組。

7. Great gamedev teams resolve interpersonal conflicts swiftly and professionally [1, 2].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會快速且專業地解決人之間的衝突。

If you have to bring in outsiders to resolve internal conflicts, you have a problem.

That’s not to say all conflict is bad.  Respectful, professional disagreement – or “creative conflict” – should be embraced [3].

But confrontations, politics, and disrespect [4] should not.  Foster constructive politics and ensure that teams stay focused on attacking the problem, not the individual.

假如團隊必須透過外力才能解決內部衝突,那麼必定問題嚴重。

並沒有人說衝突是壞事。對事不對人的專業意見分歧,或稱為創造性衝突,是應該被支持的。

只有互相針對,政治性的,不敬的衝突是應該被阻止。建立一個創造性政治環境,確保團隊能持續解決問題,而不是互相攻擊。

8. Great gamedev teams have a clearly-defined mission statement and/or set of values, which they genuinely buy into and believe in [1].  This matters FAR more than you might think.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會清楚定義使命與價值,團隊成員會對這些信仰買單。這可能比你所想像還要重要。

If your team doesn’t have a mission or doesn’t genuinely believe in the stated mission, consider pulling the team together and rewriting your mission statement.

假如團隊沒有使命感或對工作沒有充滿信念,可能要開會重新調整一下工作與任務。

9. Great gamedev teams keep the feedback loop going strong [1]. No one should go too long without receiving feedback on their work.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會強化及加速回饋。成員應該要從他們的工作成果得到立即的回饋。

As part of this, they also practice “no-surprises management" [2].  Give IMMEDIATE feedback and ensure that team members always know how well they are doing.  If there are problems, don’t ever wait for a meeting or a performance review to bring them up.

關於此,照著良好管理的十二個基石的指引練習,給予立即的回饋,確保團隊成員知道他們做的成果。假如開發出現困境,不要等到會議或效能評估才提出。

10. Great gamedev teams celebrate novel ideas, even if they don’t achieve their intended result [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊鼓勵創新的點子,即便那不在預期的結果之中。

All team members need the freedom to fail, especially creative ones.

Team members are more likely to experiment when they can see that the team and the leads have their back.  This experimentation is key to creativity, and it’s an absolutely essential part of building a learning, growing team.

團隊成員都應該被允許失敗,特別是有創意的點子。

當管理層級團隊作為團隊成員的後盾時,團隊才會願意實驗新的創意。實驗精神才是創意的來源,也會造成持續學習與成長的團隊。

The best teams understand that mistakes are opportunities.

At the same time, this needs to be balanced against the need to carefully manage design risk (point #1 above).  Keep the creative experimentation focused on the right areas, especially on what’s needed to complete the game or resolve gameplay problems.  Avoid wasteful design thrashing.

最優秀的團隊了解危機就是轉機。同時能夠平衡地管理設計風險(請注意前面提及的第一點)。持續在正確的範圍內有創意的嘗試,特別是在能夠完成遊戲及解決遊戲玩法問題的區域作實驗。不要在錯誤的地方無盡的嘗試。

11. Great gamedev teams hold each other to high standards for their particular discipline (art, design, engineering, etc) [1].  Embrace respectful collaboration – including code reviews, design reviews, art reviews, etc. – as opportunities for learning.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊在不同職能(美術,設計,工程)間會互相砥礪。互相尊敬的氣氛下協同工作,程式碼審核,設計審核,美術審核,等等。這會讓團隊互相學習。

12. Great gamedev teams build an environment of mutual respect [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會建立互相尊重的工作環境。

Some compelling management research shows that employees who feel respected are significantly more engaged.  This engagement has a direct and measurable impact on project outcomes.

很多出眾的管理研究指出受尊重的職員會更願意承擔。勇於承擔匯讓專案產出產生直接且巨大的影響。

Make sure this respect is maintained as professional dialogue even during passionate disagreements.

Make sure that leads and managers set an example by respecting all team members.

Ensure that respectful behavior is rewarded and disrespectful behavior is swiftly discouraged.

Don’t keep team members on board who are unwilling or unable to behave respectfully.  They will only poison the well.

確保在激烈的辯論中是為了專業的對話同時能保持互敬,確保管理層在打造尊重的環境對成員立下典範。確保互敬的行為被提升,不敬的行為被阻止。不要讓無法嘗試尊敬他人的員工持續在團隊內。那只會將不良行為蔓延出去。

13. Great gamedev teams deal with personnel / HR issues on the team swiftly, professionally, and appropriately [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會小心,快速,專業,適當地處理人員的問題。

14. On great gamedev teams, everyone on the team is committed to making a great game [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊應該讓成員認為他們是在做好遊戲。

15. Great gamedev teams empower team members by ensuring that their opinions count [1].

Ensure that everyone is respectfully listened to and has a chance to change your mind – especially if you’re the boss.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊讓成員認為他們的意見被重視。確保每個人的意見表達都受到尊敬。每個人都有機會能夠影響高層的決策。

16. Great gamedev teams estimate task durations as accurately as possible [1].  This can be difficult, but has a significant impact on outcomes.  Re-estimating task durations on a regular basis to maintain the accuracy of the schedule also seems to have clear positive benefits.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會準確預估工作,即便不容易,但這會對產出有巨大影響。以固定的周期重新預估工作,可以持續保持時程準確,也會造成清楚的正面效應。

17. Great gamedev teams strive to minimize internal politics and foster an environment where political shenanigans are not acceptable [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊減少內部的政治問題,形塑一個不允許心機的工作環境。

Don’t let an environment of accountability deteriorate into a culture of blame and finger-pointing.

Your team should be focused on making a great game, not one-upmanship or internecine conflict.

Don’t let anyone on the team deliberately act in a way that undermines anyone else’s efforts [2].

別讓工作環境持續陷入質問的螺旋。團隊應該專注在打造遊戲,而不是互相比較,內部衝突。別讓團隊成員故意貶低其他人的工作。

18. Great gamedev teams discuss failures openly [1].  This helps create an environment of psychological safety.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會公開討論失敗,創造充滿安全感的工作環境。

Failed ideas can be the seed of successful ones.  Sometimes a seemingly bad idea can be inches away from a very good one.

When people to keep failed ideas to themselves, it’s a missed opportunity and a possible sign of team dysfunction.  Mistakes are an opportunity for learning that should be shared, and knowledge hoarding comes with a very high organizational cost.

失敗為成功之母,有時候有意義的差勁點子可能稍加調整就會變為成功的種子。當人們把失敗的點子藏在心裡,那可能會失去一個磨亮的機會,也可能是團隊的溝通障礙。掩蓋失敗即失去學習的機會,而培育知識的成本其實比我們想像的都來的巨大。

19. Great gamedev teams don’t let any team members put their own priorities above the collective goals of the game project [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊不會讓團隊成員把自己的需求置於團隊的目標之上。

Team members must never put their own ego, their career, their need for recognition, or their own sub-team or discipline ahead of the team.  If any of these happens, it’s a sign of a deeper problem.  Resolve it swiftly, and if necessary, remove the team members in question.

Great teams hold one another accountable and call their peers out on actions and behaviors that are counterproductive to the greater good of the team [2].

團隊成員不該把自我,職涯,表現,或團隊的內規投射在團隊上。當這些發生時,就引起潛在的問題。快速解決它,有必要的話要隔離有問題的團隊成員。

20. Great gamedev teams value and utilize the unique skills and talents of all team members [1, 2].  Make sure team members’ responsibilities and job roles are carefully matched with their particular skills and abilities.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會讚揚且善用優秀才能的團隊成員,讓團隊成員各司其職,在能力上互補。

21. Great gamedev teams enlist all studio stakeholders in decisions to make significant changes to the core game design or architecture [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會在對遊戲核心設計及架構有重要變動的決策時聽取相關成員的意見。

22. Great gamedev teams offer ample praise [1].  Don’t hesitate to call out when someone does a task well.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊不吝給予讚美。別遲疑!

23. Great gamedev teams keep an open-door policy [1].  Everyone on the team should have easy access to senior leadership to raise concerns, offer feedback, or discuss personnel issues.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊不讓訊息是私底下傳遞的,團隊成員都應該能對資深人員展示關心,回饋,或談論個人事務。

24. Great gamedev teams ensure that all team members understand clearly what is expected of them [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊讓團隊希望成員達到的目標清楚地被成員了解。

Team members’ tasks should be well-defined and clearly specified [2].

It should always be clear what a team member is supposed to do, and who is supposed to be doing what on the project.

團隊的工作必須仔細定義,清楚可被理解,也就是團隊成員該做甚麼,誰該做。

25. Great gamedev teams make the organizational structure and membership of the team clear from the outset and carefully communicate any changes to that structure [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會在開始時讓組織結構與團隊成員清楚明白。當組織有變動時也要仔細溝通。

26. Great gamedev teams ensure that all team members are well-trained in the studio’s production methodology [1].  They also make a deliberate effort to continually hone and improve their production techniques throughout the development process.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會確保團隊成員對製程有清楚的認識與訓練。團隊也會在開發中持續磨練改進製程的技術。

Having said that, we see no statistically differences between agile, agile using Scrum, or waterfall production techniques [2].  The only production methodology that shows a difference is not having one: our study shows this is disastrous for teams of any significant size.

There seems to be no universal right or wrong answer here.  Pick the methodology that you think will work best for your team and your project.

我們說過,我們找不出不同製程方法論之間的統計表徵,其中包含敏捷,瀑布式開發方法。唯一的有差異的就是不使用方法。顯然這沒有標準答案,為你的團隊挑選一個最適合的方法。

27. Great gamedev teams don’t let important things go unsaid [1].  They point out the elephant in the room.

And they ensure that team members have the psychological safety they need to point out big problems and offer challenging feedback.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊不隱藏重要資訊,因為那些秘密其實都會被發現。確保團隊成員對於指出問題及接受回饋有安全感。

28. Great gamedev teams give team members opportunities to learn, grow, and improve their skill set [1, 2], and they ensure that someone in the organization encourages each team member to develop his or her skills further [3].

Ideally, this should include both on-the-job development and access to external training, coaching, and mentoring.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會讓成員有機會成長,學習,強化技能。確保團隊鼓勵每個成員持續精進。理想中團隊應該提供員工訓練的機會,其中包含技能訓練,專家與顧問。

29. Great gamedev teams ensure that their team’s tools (both software and hardware) work well and allow them to be productive [1].  They keep their game engine running smoothly and their tool chain and asset pipeline running smoothly at all times.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會確保團隊的開發工具(軟體或硬體)到位。確保引擎,工具,資源鍊的整合順暢。

30. Great gamedev teams give team members the authority to determine their own tasks on a day-to-day basis [1].  They also ensure that the person responsible for performing a task is involved in determining how much time is allocated to it [2].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會讓團隊成員能夠以一個工作天為周期決定自己的工作。這會讓員工對工作產生責任感,也能讓工作的工時準確被評估。(譯按:感謝art1勘誤)

31. Great gamedev teams carefully manage technology changes in development [1], especially large ones.  Switching to a new game engine or making deep changes to an existing engine can be very risky, and great teams take extra care to manage those risks.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊在開發中會小心應付技術的改變,切換引擎這種巨大的決策風險非常大,必須加倍小心處理。

32. Great game development teams involve the entire team in prioritizing the work to be done for each milestone or sprint [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊在每次的里程碑安排工作時程時會讓全部團隊參與。

33. Great gamedev teams meet regularly to discuss topics of interest, ask questions, and identify production bottlenecks [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會持續開會,討論議題,提出問題,觀察製程的瓶頸。

34. Great gamedev teams hold team members accountable for meeting their deadlines [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會讓團隊成員能夠對工作期限買單。

At the same time, they DON’T treat deadlines as matters of life and death, and they don’t crucify team members for missing a deadline.  Sometimes expectations aren’t reasonable, or design features or new technology features don’t work out or take much longer than expected.

Avoid sacrificing team cohesion and morale on the altar of individual deadlines.  The former are worth far more in the long run.

也就是說,期限並非是生死交迫的危機,期限不應該逼死成員。假設期待是不合理的,或設計目標或技術是不可能的,那麼工期就必定超過預估。不要為了準時交付而把團隊犧牲。團隊才是能夠長期仰賴的資產。

35. Great gamedev teams foster an environment of helpfulness [1].  They reward team members for asking for help and offering support to others.  A “sink or swim" environment will guarantee that everyone sinks in the long run.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊會營造互助的環境。鼓勵成員呼救或提供協助。強者生存的環境長期來說會讓每個人失去熱情。

36. It’s a good idea to have some specs or design documents that describe the vision for the game at the outset [1].  Although these can never replace the work of careful, day-to-day design, design documents show a positive correlation with project timeliness and goal achievement.

在專案開始時用文件把遊戲的目標註記下來。雖然這些比不上持續的工作貢獻,但設計文件會顯示出與時程及與目標達成之間的關聯性。

37. Great gamedev teams genuinely care about one another as human beings [1].  Treating staff like robots is counterproductive and hurts ROI.

Don’t tolerate “brilliant jerks.”  Or any jerks, for that matter.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊把員工當人看,而不是機械。踢走那些態度有問題的天才。

38. Great gamedev teams use individually-tailored financial incentives [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊使用以個人為基準的金錢獎勵。

Financial performance incentives have surprisingly little impact, and they ONLY seem to work at all when directly linked to indvidual performance.  Royalties appear to have no impact on outcomes.  Incentives tied to team performance or MetaCritic scores appear similarly useless.  If you’re going to offer financial incentives, consider using Pay For Performance (PFP) plans or similar individual performance incentives.

金錢獎金只能造成有限度的激勵,特別是只有在以個人績效為基準的評估下才有效果。忠誠度高的員工不代表高產出。獎金也不會提高團隊效率及網頁分數。假如團隊提供獎金,試著以論件或類似的個人績效的方式來激勵員工。

39. Great gamedev teams – especially large ones – conduct code reviews, pair programming, or peer-reviewed code checkins [1].  These showed a positive correlation with schedule timeliness and meeting project goals, especially for larger teams, and there’s significant evidence that they reduce defects and improve a team’s programming skills.

優秀的遊戲開發團隊,特別是針對大型公司,會使用程式碼審核,配對編程,或審核上傳的機制。這與時程與達成目標會有正相關,特別是對大型團隊。對降低錯誤與增進程式技術會有顯著幫助

40. Great gamedev teams recognize that even the best-laid plans sometimes require adjustment.  Any predetermined plan grows increasingly out-of-date as a game project evolves.  Most of the best teams in our survey determined the priorities for each new milestone or sprint based on the current status of the project each time [1].

優秀的遊戲開發團隊承認即便是完美的計畫都會可能會變化,隨著時間與開發任何計畫都有可能會過時。問卷中大部分優秀團隊都在里程碑時以專案的現況來重新評估工作的優先度。

Experience also matters enormously, but you probably already knew that.  What you may not have known is that it’s about as important as #36 on this list – the first 35 factors we listed all showed a stronger correlation with project outcomes than a team’s average level of experience.

有一個與清單上第三十六項一樣重要的事:大家可能都認為團隊的背景經歷很重要,但你可能不知道,比起團隊經歷,我們列出的前三十五個要項都與專案產出有更加強烈的關聯性。

Conclusion

Despite the inevitable risks involved in game development, the clearest result of our study is that the lion’s share of our destiny is in our own hands.  It comes down to a culture that consciously and deliberately fosters, cultivates, and supports effective teamwork.

We spend enormous amounts of effort optimizing our code and our art assets.  There’s no reason we shouldn’t spend just as much effort optimizing our teams, and we hope this study has pointed the way toward some of the tools to help with that process.

結論

儘管在遊戲開發上有必然的風險,我們的研究卻有清楚的結論,那就是贏家才會主導命運。那些文化是有自覺且刻意的培養,而且文化會帶來有效率的團隊合作。我們花費時間來優化程式碼與美術。沒理由不花時間優化團隊,我們希望我們的研究會幫助指出團隊應該走的道路。

The Game Outcomes Project team would like to thank the hundreds of current and former game developers who made this study possible through their participation in the survey.  We would also like to thank IGDA Production SIG members Clinton Keith and Chuck Hoover for their assistance with survey design; Kate Edwards, Tristin Hightower, and the IGDA for assistance with promotion; and Christian Nutt and the Gamasutra editorial team for their assistance in promoting the survey.

For further announcements regarding our project, follow us on Twitter at @GameOutcomes

“遊戲專案為何成功"團隊希望能感謝數百名現任開發者及前輩,讓這個問卷研究能順利進行。我們也同時感謝IGDA生產力同好會的成員Clinton Keith與Chuck Hoover在問題設計方面的協助;感謝Kate Edward,Tristin HightowerIGDA協助推廣此專案;感謝Christian Nutt及Gamasutra編輯群對我們問卷的支持。對我們的進度有興趣的話,不妨追蹤我們在Twitter上的帳號@GameOutcomes

 

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