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[翻譯] 文化方是企業之始


Culture Eats Strategy For Breakfast

[翻譯] 文化方是企業之始

原文網址:http://techcrunch.com/2014/04/12/culture-eats-strategy-for-breakfast/
原站中譯:http://techcrunch.cn/2014/04/14/culture-eats-strategy-for-breakfast/
中譯:http://www.hksilicon.com/kb/articles/446373
相關參考資料:谁说企业文化不重要:Uber必须收敛一下了-http://www.managershare.com/post/160013
相關參考資料:外行人谈策略,内行人重文化 -http://blog.163.com/znglish_zlub/blog/static/12833468820101118105016443

作者Bill Aulet (@BillAulet)
Apr 12, 2014

譯按:本文標題原意是文化該從策略開始,該先有策略。本文結論是文化是企業之始。

Editor’s note: Bill Aulet is the managing director of the Martin Trust Center for MIT Entrepreneurship and a senior lecturer at the MIT Sloan School of Management. He is the author of the recently released book, Disciplined Entrepreneurship: 24 Steps to a Successful Startup.

編按:Bill Aulet是MIT創業馬丁信託中心的管理總監,也是MIT史隆管理學院的資深講師。他也著作有"有紀律的創業:邁向成功的二十四步"一書。

I used to think corporate culture didn’t matter. Discussion of vision, mission and values was for people who couldn’t build product or sell it! We had work to do and this MBA BS was getting in the way!

And then my first company failed.

我以前認為團隊合作的文化並不重要,談那些願景,使命,價值是那些沒辦法做出產品的人才會講的包裝!我們是實實在在做事的人,MBA那些人簡直就是在扯後腿。

直到我的第一間公司失敗為止。

Cambridge Decision Dynamics did not fail because we didn’t have a great technology or a great product or customers. It failed as a sustainable, scalable organization because we had no meaningful purpose to create team unity to fight through the tough times. Now the company sits comfortably in a perpetual state of what I like to call “deep stealth mode.”

“Cambridge Decision Dynamics"並非因為我們根本沒有一個像樣的技術,偉大的產品,或真正的客戶而失敗。這間公司是因為養不起太急著擴張的公司,當時我們沒有真正的願景來打造能夠度過艱困開發時期的團隊。現在這間公司屬於我們稱為的蟄伏期。

Compare this to the rapidly growing company Eventbrite that I visited recently with some of my students. Eventbrite enables event planners to manage ticket sales and RSVPs online, and its users have sold over $2 billion in tickets.

我最近與學生們一起拜訪同樣是快速擴張的公司Eventbrite。此公司販賣舉辦活動的行銷技術與線上確認人數的服務。而這間公司的客戶到目前為止已經售出二十億美元以上的銷售額。

譯按:RSVP(request for response)-http://bonny.com.tw/www/facebook/0426_rsvp.htm

There was palpable energy and excitement in the air when we stepped in the door. Dozens of neatly parked bicycles spanned a row next to the smiling receptionist. The employee who gave us a tour proudly showed off their conference rooms named after big events that they had helped their customers pull off, including “Promunism,” which was a Communist-themed high school prom. That room had a conspicuous red rotary phone for the emergencies that might come up in planning such a large event, a clear and visible sign linking the company to its customers in a positive manner.

當我們踏入這間公司時,就可以感受到瀰漫在空氣中的興奮與熱情。幾十架自行車就停在微笑的接待員旁。充滿自信的員工帶著我們進行展示炫耀他們的會議室是以他們曾經協助過的客戶命名。比如這間Promunism就是以共產為主題的高中舞會。這會議室有一個顯眼的紅色轉盤電話,提供來做為緊急活動客戶的通知。這個顯著的象徵以一個正面態度把他們公司及客戶連接起來。

A minute later, we walked by a whiteboard with the prompt “Home to me is…” that was covered with enthusiastic employee suggestions.

幾分鐘過後,我們經過一個寫著"家對我來說是甚麼"的白板。而這白板已經被充滿熱情的建議所填滿。

Being from New York, I am inherently skeptical about worlds of happiness and cohesion. But it all made sense when our host, VP of marketing, former MIT student, and single-digit-number employee Tamara Mendelsohn, came striding in the room, beaming with pride and energy, to discuss how Eventbrite went from just a few employees to hundreds and became a model of success for others in Northern California.

因為我住紐約,所以對於幸福與向心力的字眼我有著本能性的懷疑。但當此地的主人-行銷部副總,MIT畢業生,創始員老Tamara Mendelsohn-邁著大步帶著自信與熱情走進來與我們討論Eventbrite是如何從小公司成長到百人,變為北卡的成功模範的時候,卻告訴我這一切是自然而然。

There was a lot of technical advice on primary market research and marketing techniques to drive market traction, but by far the most interesting part was about how the founders and the leaders of the company had consciously “engineered the company’s culture.” At first, she explained, the primary focus was testing for humility during the hiring process, and they had a checklist to enforce their “no assholes” rule. But they quickly realized they needed to do more.

我們在主流市場研究與市場技術上談到很多針對市場的建議,但到目前為止最有趣的莫過於是投資人與公司領導者如何自覺地"塑造公司文化"。她解釋道,在公司一開始的時候,他們在雇用的流程中就進行人格特質的測試,而他們有一個確認清單,來確認受雇者"不是一個混球"。慢慢地他們覺得這做的還不夠。

As the company grew, they wanted to keep the same GSD (Get Stuff Done) attitude across the company and not let their company turn into “just another company.” This was tricky, but because the founders and employees were deeply committed to this attitude, they developed the following solution: “You can’t complain here,” Tamara explained. “If you see something wrong, you must fix it. We say it is a great opportunity to come up with a solution, and this is where many of our best programs have come from. Anything can be changed. We aren’t victim to anyone. We own the culture.”

當公司變大的時候,他們不想要只是變成另一間公司,反而希望員工能好好在這裡安居樂業。這差異很微妙,但由於員工與投資人都認同這件事情,所以他們立了一個原則:不准抱怨。Tamara解釋:假如你看到某件事情有問題,就去把他改好。這個原則變為我們公司的極大差異,也是我們內部各種計畫的起源-任何事情都可以被改變。我們在公司並非互相拖累,而是我們共同擁有這個文化。

It is no accident that such a strong culture has produced such a successful company. Event planners have enough to worry about without their ticket-sales software having problems – it needs to just work. When we have used the tool for our center’s events, we have found both a good feature set but also a super-responsive technical support team that has us covered when we screw up or don’t understand certain features. When Tamara explained Eventbrite’s culture to us, it made sense to me why their support team was so on point.

如此強烈的文化造就這樣成功的公司並非意外。舉辦活動的人都無法接受他們使用來售票的系統有問題。當他們使用這個工具來辦活動時,他們就是需要我們,當有問題發生或不了解的需求,會有一個非常充足的技術支援團隊為後盾。當Tamara對我們解釋Eventbrite的文化時,我十分可以理解他們的支援團隊的角色。

As we talk about in our classes (and credit to Peter Drucker who had the original quote which we have modified), “culture eats strategy for breakfast, technology for lunch, and products for dinner, and soon thereafter everything else too.” Why? Because company culture, a concept pioneered by Edgar Schein, is the operationalizing of an organization’s values. Culture guides employee decisions about both technical business decisions and how they interact with others. Good culture creates an internal coherence in actions taken by a very diverse group of employees.

當我們聊到我們的課程,我們提到"戰略是文化的早餐,技術是午餐,產品是晚餐,很快地其他事情就會接著完成"(由Peter Drucker所提出,我們做了適度的修改)為什麼這樣說?此處引述Edgar Schein所闡述的概念,因為公司文化是組織價值的具現化。文化會引導員工在技術上與其他員工互動上作出決定。好的文化在多元化的員工中都能創造向心力。

Some may believe that culture cannot be “engineered,” and that it just happens. It is true that culture happens whether you want it to or not. It is the DNA of the company and is in large part created by the founders – not by their words so much as their actions. So the very decision to not try to create a corporate culture, or worse, to not have company values, is in fact your choice of what culture will prevail – and not for the better.

有些人相信文化是不能被製造的,是偶然形成的。不管願意與否文化確實會自然發生。就像公司的DNA一樣,大部分是由投資人所創造。但卻不是由教條,而是由他們的言行。所以當他們決定不要創造一個團隊合作的文化時,或更糟糕的是連公司的價值都沒有的時候,事實上就是親手決定這間公司不會找到更好的人。

Should this have been a surprise to me? No, because for over a decade in the 1980s and early 1990s, I worked for IBM when it was the most respected, profitable and rapidly growing company in the world. From day one of training (training which lasted often for two years), the company made clear the importance of their trio of core values: respect for the individual, superlative customer service, and the pursuit of excellence in all tasks. It was this fervent adherence to these core values – through the training, the monthly communications, the performance-appraisal system, the role models, and ultimately every decision we made –that made us great.

對我來說這是否是新奇的想法?其實並不是,二十年前在1980年代及1990的早期,當時我在是最令人稱道,獲利強健,快速成長的IBM服務。從第一天的訓練開始(通常總共的訓練是兩天),公司就會把核心價值的重要性告訴我們:尊敬個人,絕佳的客戶服務,任務上追求卓越。透過訓練,每月的溝通,績效評核系統,偉人的塑造,甚至對於每個做出的決定,都像是對核心價值而言狂熱般的堅持。

In my later years there, I had seen a distinction erosion of management’s commitment and adherence to these values. Leaders started to cut corners on these to achieve short-term objectives, as they felt less confident in their position and felt it was more important to deliver short-term results. It was this ambiguity about these values that contributed so mightily to the fall of IBM, which led to the installment of Lou Gerstner as CEO.

在我服務的後期幾年,我看到管理層與那些價值的漸行漸遠。領導人為了達到短期目標試著把組織縮減,而員工則因此對保住職位失去信心,覺得總是在完成短期目標。價值觀的模糊造成了IBM的失敗,直到CEO Lou Gerstner上任為止。

As he worked to turn around the business, he came to a deeper understanding of the issue, which he voiced himself at the end of his tenure: “I came to see in my time at IBM that culture isn’t just one aspect of the game – it is the game. In the end an organization is nothing more than the collective capacity of its people to create value.”

當時他試著扭轉商業劣勢時,他思考這個問題很深,最後他對自己對話:當我回顧IBM時,文化並非只是整體的一小部份,文化才是最重要的事。組織不過就是創造價值的人們的集合體。

While IBM is a large company, this pattern is true as well for the world of startups I now operate in — especially startups that want to scale. My colleague, Paul English, built a unique culture at Kayak that was the foundation of that company’s success. The founders created a system where their company culture of excellence and productivity was created from the hiring process through to operations. Meetings where decisions were to be made were to have no more than three people because then people were wasting their time. This created a culture of action and accountability while trading off consensus.

IBM雖然是一個巨大的公司,對世界上所有的新創公司,這句話都依然成立,特別對想要擴張的新創公司。我的同僚Paul English在Kayak建立了獨特的公司文化,造就了公司的成功。投資人塑造一個環境,這個環境會在雇用到運作流程中創造公司的優秀與高生產力文化。開會不超過三個人,因為超過三個人都是浪費其他人的時間,這就創造了行動力高的文化,犧牲共識得到的責任感。

This culture does not work for all people and all companies but they made no apologies for it at Kayak and pursued it consistently. It was reinforced daily by practices ranging from Paul’s behavior, to size of conference rooms to the incentive system. The result of these efforts was that the company’s revenue per employee was $1.25 million, which was more than double the industry average. In June 2013, Kayak was purchased for $1.8 billion by Priceline.com.

這個文化並沒有對所有人貨公司都起作用,但在Kayak他們並不以此為意,仍繼續堅持。每天都由Paul身體力行,到會議室及績效系統。成果就是每個員工可以賺進一百二十五萬美金,超過產業平均水準的兩倍。2013年六月,Kayak被Priceline.com以一八億買下。

Another example is a company called Dyn, which is based in Manchester, N.H. This company performs the crucial but unglamorous work of creating, managing and improving the plumbing of the Internet for users. The company’s founders believed deeply that they needed to have a strong culture. Aligning with what will create value for their customers, they focused on creating an environment that was exceptional at allowing people to be honest about their mistakes, driving them to rectify them, and then celebrate and immortalize the technical efforts that brought the solutions to life.

另一間公司是曼徹斯特的Dyn,這間公司雖然創造,管理,加強使用者的網路經驗但工作內容卻十分乏味。因此公司的投資人深信他們需要一個文化,依此來創造對他們客戶的價值,因此他們試著專注創造一個可以讓員工容許錯誤,改正鼓勵技術努力會改變生活的環境。

Again this culture was brought to life by the real estate, the way visitors were handled, the actions of the company leaders and their highly visible movie posters. An example of a movie poster is shown below. In this case, the customer had a broken workflow for registering new domains, so the employees worked on a solution that made it so easy “even your parents can figure it out.” The company then invested in creating the poster below and then having the team sign the poster. It is now permanently and prominently hung in their headquarters. It is no surprise to me that Dyn has grown from 53 employees in 2011 to 300 employees today and is considered a huge success story in an unconventional location.

這種文化會變為實際可見的實體,訪客可以看見的立牌,公司領導人的動作,與海報。這裡就展示一個電影的海報,這個例子中,客戶透過打破既有的工作流程進入新領域,在這裡工作的員工會讓父母都能搞懂這件事成真。這間公司投資製作這樣的海報,作為團隊的標誌。現在這被放在總部。Dyn能在2011年從53位員工成長到300位員工,並在一處不平凡的地點仍能創造巨大成功故事一點也不意外。

Every company, especially startups, will experience random events that will help or hurt. It is impossible to fully anticipate these events ahead of time. That’s not the question. The question is how your organization will react to the series of inevitable unknown and random events.

每一間公司,特別是新創公司,都會遭遇各種危機與轉機,而且各種事件處理的時間都非常急迫。但這不是問題,問題是如何組織員工去面對各種未知的考驗與事件。

A strong product plan is great, but it also takes strong culture to handle potentially adverse scenarios in a positive way. A positive culture like Eventbrite’s takes what would be an inherently fragile human system and makes it anti-fragile (i.e. it gets stronger with random events), to use the concept that Nassim Nicholas Taleb describes in his books. The unpredictable world of a fast-growing startup, and the daily decisions that must be made in response, tend to make the venture stronger rather than weaker or more confused.

設計產品計畫很重要,但調整文化去面對潛在的事件也很重要。像Eventbrite般正向的文化會讓破碎的組織變為整體,能夠對抗各種事件,並能使用Nassim Nicholas Taleb在他的書中所提到的概念。這樣做會讓公司在應付一個快速成長的新創公司未知的挑戰及每天的決策時更加強健。

So count me among the completely converted. When I talk to entrepreneurs now, before I get too carried away with the idea, I want to probe them about their vision, mission and values. Ideas are cheap – and tasty too. Culture eats them even before its pre-breakfast morning run.

所以我完全被此說服。當我談到企業家精神在我了解他們正在做的事情之前,我就想知道他們的願景,使命,與價值。驚人的點子到處都是,文化才使得他們在早餐之前產生巨大的差異。

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