Design

[翻譯] 企劃的種類


Types of Designers
企劃的種類
原文網址
http://www.lizengland.com/blog/2014/06/types-of-designers/

http://gamasutra.com/blogs/LizEngland/20140620/219559/Types_of_Designers.php

作者:Liz England

06/20/14 03:16:00 pm
(編按:已徵得原作者同意翻譯)

In an effort to help clarify “what does a game designer do?”, I want to go over all the different TYPES of designers. There are designers who are affectionately called “jack of all trades” who dip their hands in all elements of design and sometimes even art and     programming, and then there’s specialized roles like “systems designer” and “combat designer” and “level designer”.
當我們試著釐清遊戲企畫在做甚麼的時候,我想先談談企畫的種類。有那種 “讓人喜愛甚麼都會一點哪裡都能救火,甚至還能幫上美術與程式忙"的企劃,也有專精在系統設計,戰鬥設計,及關卡設計的企劃。

The truth is, any general definition of design has flaws because the actual responsibilities of a designer varies depending on the size of the studio, the platform, the genre, the size of the game, the studio culture regarding roles, how specialized people are, and even whether there is a “design department” at that studio. The designer on a first person shooter has very different practical responsibilities than the designer on your next favorite match-three mobile game.
事實上,每個泛用型的企劃都有一些缺點,因為一個企劃的職掌會因他所處的團隊規模,平台,遊戲類型,遊戲大小,工作室文化,角色,公司內部是否有專門的設計部分而有很大的差異。設計第一人稱射擊遊戲與三消行動遊戲的企劃會在實際責任上有相當大的不同。

GENERALISTS
泛用型

Designer / Game Designer
遊戲設計企劃

Generic term to mean any or all of the design specializations, used at any size studio, any genre, etc. Most companies just use this term for job titles, while individual designers might still specialize informally. The larger the studio, the more likely they will have specialized designer titles.
遊戲設計企劃是對於所有領域設計人員的泛稱,任何大小及遊戲類型的團隊。大部分的公司就只用這個職位來雇用企畫,每個企劃都可能再專精特定的領域。越大的公司就越有可能會有專精的職位。

Overall, designers are concerned with the rules  of the game, what ways a player can interact with the game, how the mechanics and story work to provide a desired experience to the player. This is the vague description that gets clarified as you read on.
大致上來說,遊戲設計企劃會關心遊戲的機制,玩家是如何跟遊戲產生互動,遊戲的機制與故事是如何提供玩家期待的體驗。這就是大致上的內容。

Junior Designer / Associate Designer
助理設計企劃

Junior or Associate designers usually have less experience, and less creative control. They may spend more time implementing under the eyes of a Designer or Senior Designer. This is often an entry level position, catering to new hires from outside the industry (such as students), those transitioning between roles within a company (from art to design), or existing designers hired into very different scale of games (moving from a 2D game studio to a AAA studio).
助理設計企劃通常比較資淺,或比較少專注在創意上。他們會花比較多時間透過資深設計企劃的角度來實作。這職位通常是一個入門磚,公司用這職位雇用沒有遊戲產業經驗的人員,跨越不同領域(如美術到設計)的轉換職位,或當設計企劃進入不同規模的公司時的職位。

Senior Designer
資深企劃

A senior-level position in the design department. Someone who could fill the position of “lead” and usually takes charge of a large system in the game, such as all combat or all levels, and delegates to or guides other designers. They may be the major point-person for a system and work with programmers and artists and the leads to bring it from an idea to a fully featured system.
資深企劃是設計部門中資深的位置。通常指有資格帶領團隊或負責遊戲的大系統-如戰鬥系統,同時也代表能夠指引其他設計人員的人。這樣的人是系統的關鍵人物,同時會與程式與美術人員合作,真正把點子轉換為充滿各種特色的系統。

Lead Designer
主企劃

Leads translate the Creative Directors vision to the design team (much like the Art Director or Lead does for the art team). They review the gameplay from its macro to the moment-to-moment bits, giving direction and feedback to designers and making decisions regarding the gameplay mechanics.
主企畫會負責將創意監督的想法說明給設計團隊(如美術總監,或主美術)。這樣的角色會檢視遊戲玩法的各種細節,給予設計企劃方向及回饋,做出關於遊戲玩法機制的回饋。

Creative Director
創意監督

The top of the game development pyramid who reports directly to the owner of the company and to the publisher funding the game. They hold the ‘vision’ of the game – this is the closest to “the idea guy” that you can get. They are analogous to a film director, and are usually the most visible in the media as the face of the development team.
創意監督通常是在遊戲開發的金字塔頂層,直接對公司高層及發行商負責,這樣的角色會負責決定遊戲的"外觀",也就是我們所認知最接近"出點子的人"。他就像是電影導演一樣,通常在新聞中會代表開發團隊亮相,被訪問的人。

Creative Directors can come from any department – art, programming, design, or even an owner of the company. Some studios use Director or Executive Producer to describe this role, but Creative Director is the most common.
創意總監可以從各種不同部門而來,美術,程式,設計,甚至是投資人。一些團隊會用導演或執行製作人來描述這個角色,但創意總監是最一般的說法。

LEVELS & MISSIONS
關卡與任務

Level Designer
關卡設定

A level designer is responsible for the architecture and gameplay in a chunk of physical space – a level. They care about how the player flows through the level, puzzles or enemies or other obstacles they encounter, and implement basic geometry of the level and the moment-to-moment gameplay. They work closely with level artists to get the aesthetics in place, and gameplay programmers for specialized functionality they may need, and the writer and creative director to ensure the level fits within the overall game.
關卡設定人員負責在一個固定物理空間中的遊戲玩法與架構,也就是關卡。這樣的角色會專注在玩家通過關卡時的面對的各種流程,如謎題,敵人,障礙。他們實作關卡中各種基本幾何形狀及每個時刻的遊戲玩法。他們會跟關卡美術,及遊戲玩法程式,作家,創意總監一起合作,確保關卡適合整個遊戲。

Where do I hide the intel? Where is the next objective? How does the player get from A to B – an elevator or a ladder? Which enemies attack the player in this room? Where is the cover placed? What kinds of puzzles exist? Where are the exploratory spaces? What story elements do I need to communicate to the player, and when?

我該把關鍵藏在哪裡?下一個目標在哪裡?玩家怎麼從A到B,需要放一個電梯或是梯子嗎?哪一個敵人會在這間房間內攻擊玩家?掩護區在哪裡?有甚麼樣的謎題?爆炸區在哪裡?甚麼時候,該告訴玩家怎樣的故事劇情?

Multiplayer Level Designer
多人遊玩關卡設定

These designers have the same basic responsibilities as other level designers, but they focus on the unique needs and challenges of multiplayer gameplay. They focus on designing levels that accommodate competitive and/or cooperative gameplay and the placement of any elements specific to a certain mode (flags, control points, enemy waves).
多人遊玩關卡設定人員會負責跟關卡設定一樣的事,但是他們會專注在多人關卡的需要與挑戰賞。他們專注於調整關卡的對抗性及合作性,或是任何一種對抗模式的元素(搶旗賽,搶點賽,生存賽進攻敵人波次)

How long is this racetrack, and is it wide enough to accommodate all the players? Where are the control points that players need to take over? How far apart are the flags in Capture the Flag? Where do players respawn and how do you prevent spawn-camping? How many players need to be in this arena to defeat the boss? What architectural features of the level best cater to different player classes, such as a sniper vs. short-ranged melee attacker?
賽道該設定多長?夠寬廣讓全部玩家都進入嗎?玩家需要搶的控制區在哪裡?從搶到旗子到終點多遠?玩家重生的位置在哪裡,如何避免守點?打死頭目需要多少玩家?這關的特色是提供給怎樣的玩家職業?狙擊手還是進戰?

World Builder
世界場景設定

World builders are a type of level designer – many of their responsibilities are the same, and someone qualified as one would usually be able to move to the other. The world builder title tend to exist more in open world and MMO spaces – games that don’t have individual concrete levels but rather large areas for the players to traverse around. As such, these spaces usually have multiple purposes (story missions, side quests, activities or minigames, multiplayer hubs) as opposed to traditional level design where the space has a single purpose.
世界場景設定是關卡設定的一種,他們也同樣負責關卡,世界關卡。這個職位通常是給多人連線遊戲領域的遊戲製作,玩家並沒有被區分在分別的關卡中,而是跟其他玩家一起遊歷。這個區域通常比起傳統的關卡僅有單一用途,會包含主線,支線,活動,小遊戲,玩家交流區。

Does this area have large city buildings, highways, shops, mountains, rivers, or flat? How does this area fit in with the areas directly around it? What landmarks make this area unique? What kinds of enemies, architecture, plants, or other features populate this area? How does the player navigate through it? What are the critical paths players take as shortcut, and what are the dead spaces players tend to avoid?

這個區域必須要有城市建築,高速公路,商店,山丘,河流,及平原嗎?這個區域要怎麼跟其他區域連接?如何建立特殊的路標?要放入怎樣的敵人,架構,植披,或其他特色來豐富這區域?玩家是怎麼在這區域遊歷?哪些是捷徑?哪些是危險區?

Mission Designer
任務設定

Sometimes a mission designer and a level designer are interchangeable, but in cases like open world games or MMOs a mission designer usually handcrafts gameplay in a space that already exists, or exists for multiple purposes. Mission designers are focused on what the player is doing during a mission – the gameplay beats, objectives, combat, implementing dialogue and ensuring story elements are communicated to player.
有時候任務設定及關卡設定是可以互相涵蓋的,但相對於有開放世界的多人連線遊戲,任務設定人員通常會在已經做好的非特定區域來設計遊玩內容,任務設定會專注在玩家過任務的過程,遊玩的互動目標,戰鬥,對話,確保故事劇情有傳達給玩家。

What is the player’s current objective – is it interesting? How does this mission fit into the overarching story? Where does the player traverse to in order to complete the mission? What is the pay-off at the end? Is there any new functionality being introduced in this mission? What kind of combat, puzzles, or other obstacles does the player encounter? Is there appropriate spectacle in the mission to signify its importance in the game?
玩家現在的目標是甚麼?有趣嗎?這個任務在整個故事中怎麼銜接?玩家為了要完成任務要去哪裡?結束的時候有甚麼獎勵?這個任務有甚麼功能要講解嗎?玩家會遇到怎樣的戰鬥,謎題,障礙?有甚麼適當的場面來顯示這個任務的重要性嗎?

Quest Designer
支線任務設定

Very similar role to the Mission Designer (and sometimes interchangeable), Quests tend to be secondary story-focused gameplay, usually smaller but still using many of the same mechanics as a mission or main story line. You find quest designers in studios making role-playing games and MMORPGs.
與任務設定很類似(或互相涵蓋)的就是支線任務設定,支線任務是比較小用來訓練玩家的任務。通常是在角色扮演類型,或多人線上角色扮演類型的專案會有支線任務設定。

Is this quest part of a quest chain? What is the ultimate pay-off of this quest? What kind of quest archetype is it – explore and discover, fetch, combat, or something else? What enemies are involved? Where does the player have to go to get, engage in, and complete the quest? What area of the world does the quest cover? When does the player first get the quest? What story does the quest tell and how does that fit into the overall design of the game?
這個任務是整個任務鍊中的一環嗎?有甚麼特殊的獎勵?這個任務的分類是哪一種?是探索,發現,取得,戰鬥,或其他類型?其中有甚麼敵人?玩家應該怎麼做才能完成任務?任務會涵蓋哪些區域?玩家從哪裡取得任務?故事內容是甚麼?怎麼跟遊戲的設計整合在一起?

SYSTEMS
機制與系統

Systems Designer
遊戲系統/機制設計

A catch-all term for various systems design. Systems refers to global rules or things the player interacts with across the entire game, not specific to missions, quests, areas, or levels.  They aren’t focused on the moment-to-moment experience so much as the overall birds-eye-view of the game. To help clarify, a system may be something like “combat” while a mechanic may be “throwing grenades”. They spend a lot of their time in excel sheets and organizing information.
遊戲系統/機制設計是對於系統設計的統稱,系統是遊戲與遊戲互動時的規則,而無關於任務,區域,關卡。相較於隨時的體驗,系統是遊戲的巨觀。這邊我們為了區分定義清楚,系統就像是戰鬥系統,機制就像是丟出手榴彈。這些都會需要我們在文件及組織上花上很多時間來實作。

What kinds of slots can the player equip armor or clothing to? How does the player level up, and at what rate? How often does the player get a new weapon? How many pieces of intel are they, and what is their spread across the entire game? What are all the different puzzle mechanics and at what rate do you introduce them to the player? How many quests, challenges, minigames, and other optional pieces of gameplay are there?
玩家可裝備護甲及衣服在哪些空位?玩家怎麼升級?升級的速率如何?玩家得到武器的頻率為何?取得的頻率有甚麼樣的智慧在其中?有幾種不同的謎題,甚麼時候要介紹給玩家?有多少任務,挑戰,小遊戲,或是其他附加的遊戲玩法?

Combat Designer
戰鬥系統設計

These designers are often at large studios that make games where the main interaction is fighting. Combat designers are concerned with enemies, weapons, bosses, ammo, difficulty balancing, and any class-based combat skills. While they are focused a lot on the combat systems, they also govern the moment-to-moment experience a player has in various combat scenarios throughout the game.
戰鬥系統設計人員通常在專門做以戰鬥類型為主的大公司。這樣的角色會關心敵人,武器,頭目,但要,平衡,以及任何跟職業相關的戰鬥技能。當他們專注在戰鬥系統上時,他們也會關心玩家隨時的體驗,希望在遊戲過程能獲得各種戰鬥的體驗。

When does the player encounter a new enemy type? What is the optimal combat distance for a shotgun and a sniper rifle? How many bullets is in an enemy volley, how often do they fire, and how accurate is each bullet? Does the game use dynamic difficulty adjustments to the player’s style, or a flat easy/medium/hard setting? How much do you want to starve the player of ammo? Do bosses have weak points and, if so, what is the optimal way to attack them? How much health does a player has, and how much can a medic class heal them for?
玩家甚麼時候會碰到新敵人?使用散彈槍及狙擊槍的最佳距離是多少?敵人有多少彈藥,他們的開火頻率?每個子彈的準確率?遊戲會隨著玩家的能力調整難度嗎?還是單純用簡單/中等/困難來設定?玩家甚麼時候會用完彈藥?頭目會有弱點嗎?有甚麼最佳方式來與之對抗?玩家有多少生命值,醫療人員會回復多少?

Combat designers on competitive fighting games like Street Fighter actually have a pretty unique role that differs a bit from the above. They are concerned with such details as how many frames it takes for an attack animation to play, and dealing with the rock-paper-scissors elements to ensure that each character is extremely well-balanced.
在格鬥遊戲像快打旋風這類遊戲中,戰鬥系統設計人員會有非常不同的工作內容,他們專注在攻擊動畫的畫格數,互剋機制。確保每個角色的平衡。

Economy Designer
經濟系統設計

Economy designers are focused on the design, implementation, and – most importantly – the balance of a virtual economy. This mainly covers how the player earns and where they spend in-game currency. This is rarely a job title on its own but rather a descriptor for a type of system a design may be in charge of. For example, both Valve and CCP have full-time economists on staff, but any game that has loot and vendors would need a designer to oversee this system.
經濟系統設計人員是專注在設計虛擬經濟系統的平衡。主要是玩家怎麼得到及花費遊戲貨幣。很少公司會開這個職缺,但其實在公司內都會有人負責這領域。舉例來說Valve及CCP都會有全職的經濟學家,但每個讓玩家取得及購買的遊戲都會需要一個專門的設計人員。

What ingredients are required to craft a new potion? How many experience points do you need to level up? What kind of loot drops from enemies? What are the loop drop rates, and how often do rare or common items drop?  Can players trade items with each other? How does an auction house work? If there are vendors, how does the player interact with them?
做出藥水要甚麼材料?多少經驗點數可以升級?敵人身上會掉甚麼東西?掉落率為何?稀有及一般的物品掉落的機率差異?玩家之間可以交易物品嗎?拍賣場怎麼運作?有商店的話,玩家怎麼與之互動?

Multiplayer Designer
多人遊玩系統設計

Multiplayer Designers focus on custom  cooperative or competitive gameplay modes and design, such as deathmatch, horde modes, MMO groups, guilds or clans, and leaderboards. They also serve the role of Multiplayer Level Designer where appropriate (depending on the size of the team or style of game).
多人遊玩系統設計人員是專注在設計合作與競爭的遊戲模式,如死鬥,部落戰,多人工會,排行榜。這樣的角色也會跟多人遊玩關卡設定人員合作(當然根據團隊的規模而定)

Is the multiplayer mode cooperative, competitive, or both? What type of modes are in this game – horde, deathmatch, capture the flag? Can players organize their own guilds or clans? How many players can play together in a single match? How do leaderboard work and what do they score on? What, if any, rewards do players earn from multiplayer achievements? How do players enter and exit multiplayer from the singleplayer campaign?
這個多人遊玩的模式是合作還是競爭,又或者兩者都有?有幾種多人遊玩模式?部落戰,死鬥,搶旗戰?玩家可以組織公會嗎?一場多人遊戲有多少玩家可以一起玩?排行榜怎麼運作?上面有甚麼分數?玩家在多人遊玩時有甚麼獎勵嗎?玩家怎麼進入及離開多人遊玩遊戲?

Puzzle Designer
謎題設定

Puzzle designers are kind of the mirror of a combat designer, except that the obstacle is not an enemy but a piece of logic, like a locked door or a series of scrambled letters. Puzzle designers are often a level designer, such as in Portal or any sokoban style block-moving game. However, the role extends to puzzle games that are not based about hand-made stages – they also include balancing games like Candy Crush Saga or Bejeweled.
謎題設定人員是戰鬥系統的另一種,只是他們不面對敵人,而是面對邏輯,像是鎖住的門或寫了密碼的信件。這樣的角色也是關卡設定人員,設計入口,路徑上阻礙物,然而謎題設定人員不是只設計這種可見的關卡,也設計包含像Candy Crush Saga或Bejeweled這類遊戲的平衡。

What new mechanic am I teaching in this puzzle? How can I re-use the same mechanics, such as a switch and a door, in different ways that feel new to the player? Does each puzzle become progressively harder? Does the player have all the necessary information to complete the puzzle? Is there a timer and how fast does it count down? In this gem-matching game, what is the bonus mechanic for matching 3, 4, or 6 gems in a row?
在這謎題中應該要教導玩家怎樣的機制?如何重新利用相同的機制,比如開關與門廊,如何讓玩家對相同的機制感到新奇?每個謎題的困難度有逐漸增加嗎?各種資訊都有告知玩家來克服謎題嗎?有計時器嗎?計時的速率為何?若是寶石方塊類型的遊戲,在不同的連鎖時分別有甚麼樣的效果?

Narrative Designer
敘事設計

Narrative designers are concerned with gameplay elements or mechanics that allow the player to interact with the story, whether that’s in a linear fashion or through meaningful choices that result in branching stories. While they certainly deal with some level of writing (which varies by studio), they mostly focus on the design and implementation of narrative-related gameplay. While many studios hire writers (because most games, particularly AAA titles, have a story), narrative designer roles tend to exist at studios that specialized in story-oriented games, like Bioware or Tell Tale.
敘事設計人員專注在遊戲玩法的元素與機制如何讓玩家跟故事互動上,是單線劇情還是多重選擇導致分支。這樣的角色多少會牽涉到關卡的劇情,但他們專注在跟敘事有關的玩法上。即便每個團隊都會雇用作家,像Bioware或Tell Tale這樣的公司,敘事設計人員在團隊中都還是在故事導向的遊戲中有固定的編制。

How does the player interact with story elements – through dialogue options, quick time events, or text input? Is the story linear or branching? If it branches, how many branches are there and do they always branch or do they loop back together at key moments? Is there a morality system tied to player choices? How do you communicate that a choice is meaningful?
玩家怎麼跟故事元素互動?是透過對話選項,時間任務,還是輸入文字?故事是單線的還是多線的?有多少分支?分支劇情在關鍵時刻會回到一起嗎?玩家的選擇背後有道德系統運作嗎?如何告訴玩家選項是有意義的?

CROSSOVER POSITIONS
跨領域的位置

Crossover roles are usually a hybrid of design and another specialization, so they may exist in the design department or not.
跨領域的位置通常是給那些混合設計與其他領域的專長人員,不論他們是被歸屬於設計部門與否。

Monetization Designer
小額付費設計

A cross between design and business, a monetization designer deals with how to take gameplay or aesthetic (non-gameplay) elements and sell them to players for real money, and how much these elements should cost. These positions exist at mobile and social games companies,  studios that make free-to-play games (like Riot’s League of Legends), studios that make MMOs (like Blizzard), and at large publishers that have microtransactions and small DLC packets in their games.
在商業與設計之間就是小額付費設計人員,他們設計玩家是如何被玩法及美術所吸引而付出真正的金錢,同時設定價位。這種職位在行動及社交遊戲公司,免費遊戲(Riot的英雄聯盟),多人連線遊戲公司(Blizzard),以及會發行下載包的大型發行商。

Normally your regular developers at large studios don’t worry about money or costs – that’s the job of producers, upper management, and business people. Since monetization designers deal with revenue so much they usually have a business or marketing background and come from upper management rather than up through design.
一般來說大公司的開發商不會擔心支出的問題,那是製作人,管理高層,商務的工作。但小額付費設計人員也通常帶有商務及市場的背景,而非從設計部門而來。

Technical Designer
技術企劃

Usually qualified to be a software engineer or gameplay programmer, tech designers actually bridge the engineering and design departments. Sometimes this means they take the specs given to them by designers and work with the programming department to implement them. This can be full coding and the development of new features, or it can be using scripting languages to set up gameplay such as missions and then pass them to the designers to make modifications (depending on the studio’s needs and the tech designer’s skillset). You find this role at larger companies, open world studios, and few other places, but it’s not particularly common as a job title.
通常軟體工程師或遊戲玩法程式人員可以轉作技術企畫,這種角色作為工程與設計部門間的橋梁。他們通常會先取得設計規格,再與其他程式部門合作實作出來。工作內容可以是完全的程式設計或是使用腳本設計任務,再讓企劃能夠調整細節(依據團隊的需求及技術企劃的技能而定)。在大公司中有這種編制,但通常不會是一個職稱。

UI Designer
介面設計

This person is usually part of the User Interface team, not part of the design team, but has a lot of crossover responsibilities so it’s not unheard of for them to be considered a designer. Their job is to organize and present information to the player in the form of HUDs and menus – any of the graphical elements that are displayed on screen for the player. These elements include health indicators, objective text, tutorials, button prompts, inventories, maps, and crafting interfaces.
介面設計人員是使用者介面團隊的一員,而不是設計團隊,但很多工作部分是重疊的,所以也並不是沒有公司在設計團隊中有這樣的編制。這樣的角色的工作就是去設計玩家在螢幕上看到資訊及選單,不管是圖形還是資訊,包含生命指數,目標,教學,按鈕提示,道具,地圖,調配藥水介面。

Writer
劇情作家

Writers focus on the overall narrative of the game, which is informed by the creative director’s vision as well as the needs of individual designers (jn the case of a mission or level-focused game). They also write the text, descriptions, names, and dialogue throughout the entire game and work with (usually external) teams to localize this text into other languages.
作家從創意監督或個別企劃的視野下寫作整個遊戲,任務,關卡的故事。他們跟團隊合作寫下文字,描述,名稱,對白。甚至包含多國語系的部分。

Sometimes writers exist on the design team, since they work very closely with them, and sometimes narrative designers may take on writing duties.  At very small companies, there may be no on-staff writer and this position maybe filled by a designer. But typically if you want to write for games, you need to be good at writing not at designing.
有時候作家會隸屬於設計團隊,因為他們需要與團隊緊密工作,有時候敘事設計人員也會分擔寫作的工作。在小公司內,可能就沒有專職的作家,此時企劃會負責這個工作。但有時候設計與寫作專長還是略有差異。

Design Support
企畫助理

This role is a low-level design position that focuses mostly on implementing tedious grunt tasks, freeing up other designers to concentrate on bigger issues. They may go through and populate the world with crates or fish, or use scripting to trigger FX explosions as the player fights in a big battle. They may place volumes or clues around pieces of cover that tells the game how AI can interact with them, and then place those volumes throughout every combat scenario in the game.
企畫助理是一個負責比較不需要設計的職位,會協助負責各種雜務,讓設計人員能專注在大項目上。他們負責在遊戲中塞滿各種箱子及魚隻,讓玩家戰鬥時能使用腳本觸發爆炸效果。他們會負責擺放書卷及線索,讓遊戲知道要怎麼指揮AI與玩家互動,擺放那些書卷讓玩家了解戰鬥場景的背景故事。

I know this role exists at my studio and at least a couple other places, which is why I am including it (we technically call it QA Support, as they are all QA people we’ve brought into support roles to help designers). This role might be that of an Associate or Junior Designer, depending on the company, or fall into a more generalized “contract work” temporary hire.
我至少就知道兩三個公司有這樣的角色,所以我在這裡提到他們。有時候我們是用品管助理的方式稱呼他們,有時候是資淺的設計人員,或短時間暫時來支援的人員。

NOT-DESIGNERS DESIGNERS
非企劃的設計人員

These are roles that have “design” in their name but are not traditionally considered part of the design team at a game development studio.
有一種人員叫做設計師可是並非是遊戲設計團隊的一員。

Graphic Designer
平面設計

A term for an artist that specializes in 2D art such as UI buttons, forum icons, web design, logos, splash screens, and similar graphic elements. They do not typically create any in-game content unless they are part of the user interface team, at which point they are usually called a UI artist and not a graphic designer.
平面設計人員是負責設計平面美術,像是界面按鈕,討論區按鈕,網頁設計,LOGO,全幅宣傳圖。通常他們不會實際製作遊戲內的內容,否則他們就會被歸類在介面團隊,被稱作介面美術,而不是平面設計人員。

User Experience Designer
使用者經驗設計

Also sometimes called UX Designers or Usability Professionals,  these people are usually not directly developing the game. Their job is to take the game in various forms – often demos or larger chunks – and put it in front of potential players in focus groups to test it. They’re concerned about whether players understand the game, are engaging with its mechanics,  and where communication is breaking down – and then passing that information on to the rest of the team. This kind of testing is not about identifying technical bugs, but about poor or misleading design.
UX,或使用者經驗設計人員專門研究可行性,他們通常不直接開發遊戲。他們的工作是讓遊戲在展示或重大版本的時候研究試玩人員的反應。他們比較關心玩家怎麼理解遊戲,與機制互動,理解溝通。然後再把資訊傳遞給團隊人員。這種流程並不稱為品管或除蟲,而是專注在設計上。

UX Designers often work for publishers like EA or Activision, large developers like Blizzard, or hired on a freelance basis. Smaller studios will rely on their publisher to organize focus tests or usability tests for the game.
使用者經驗設計人員通常是在EA或Activision這種發行商或大型開發公司如Blizzard內工作。常常是以接案的形式工作。小工作室會依賴發行商來做這樣的使用者經驗測試。

Sound Designer
音效設計

Part of the audio department, a sound designer deals with the sound effects found throughout the game world (from the player’s footsteps, to the firing of a gun, to the ch-ching of money earned), in its user interface (button clicks, new objective dings), and the music that accompanies it. They may create their own sound effects, or choose effects from a sound library their company subscribes to and modify them to fit the needs of the game.
身為音效部門的一份子,音效設計人員處理遊戲世界的音效(從玩家的腳步聲,槍聲,到錢入袋的叮咚聲),使用者介面的音效(按鈕,新目標出現),以及背景音樂。可以是原創的音效,也可能是從音效庫中找來修改。

Software Designer
軟體設計人員

A software designer is one of many terms to describe the role of a programmer. Despite the name, this is not a design position.
軟體設計人員是用來形容程式的,但儘管職稱是設計,其實工作內容並不是(遊戲)設計。

Hardware Designer
硬體設計

This is a pretty specialized role that exists at companies that deal with hardware – console manufacturers such as Sony, Nintendo, Microsoft, and Valve, for example. There are also companies that deal with peripherals, such as the belated RedOctane and upcoming Oculus Rift. You may also find these roles at toy companies that create electronics for kids, which may also use the terms Toy Designer and Product Designer.
硬體設計人員是特別專精於處理硬體的公司,譬如說Sony,Nintendo,Microsoft,及Valve,舉例來說有公司專門處理頭戴式裝置像是Oculus Rift。你也會在玩具公司發現這些職位,他們專門設計給小孩的電子設備,他們的職稱也有可能是玩具設計師及產品設計師。

Game Architect
遊戲系統架構師

Despite architecture and level design having a lot of shared elements, a “game architect” is actually a highly technical and senior role in the programming or engineering department.
儘管架構與關卡互相有很大部分的雷同,遊戲架構師通常指稱軟體或工程部門內技術與資深的人員。

EXCEPTIONS
其他

Oh boy are there a lot of exceptions, but I think if you internalize this list you’ll be 90% of the way there. Remember that titles and roles usually share a lot of responsibilities. For example, on one project I was a level designer and mission designer for a one-hour chunk of gameplay, while also juggling systems design for skill trees/perks/leveling.
我想這個清單已經涵蓋了百分之九時的職位,只要記住職稱與角色並不是不能重疊的。舉例來說,在一個專案中你負責一小時遊玩體驗的關卡及任務設定人員,同時你也有可能因此必須設計技能樹。

One of the big exceptions is that some companies still use different titles than the ones listed above, so there are still some weird cases out there that you might not recognize. For this article, I looked at a bunch of job posting at AAA companies and found titles like “Lead Gameplay Designer” and “motion designer” and an “industrial designer”. Some of these reflect unique jobs that don’t exist everywhere in the industry (ex: Valve), and others are just quirks of the studio’s organization, often reflecting specific gameplay experiences they deliver (ex: Bioware).
其中一個例外就是有些公司使用不同於此清單的職稱,我在寫這篇文章的時候,我發現有一些頂尖公司(Valve)會雇用主遊戲設計企畫,動作設計,人物設計。那些值為有時候在其他公司是不會出現的。這種情況通常反映那間公司(Bioware)的特殊情形。

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