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[翻譯] 管理適合民主嗎?


Is Management a Democracy?
管理適合民主嗎?

原文網址:https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/management-democracy-dr-rebel-hanna
作者:Dr. Rebel Hanna

…, strong leaders are thought to challenge or undermine the concepts of democracy, participation and the delegation of decision-making. The appropriate role of the leader is often described as that of a compromiser, weighing various interests on a balance and then mapping out a middle-of-the-road route, using analysis and pragmatism to get there (Gyllenhammar 1977:161)
所謂強勢領袖常被認為挑戰或至少不那麼專注在:民主概念,眾人參與,決策委任。而一般的領導者通常被認為是妥協者,將不同的需求透過分析及實際情況協調到一個平衡,大家都能接受的地方。

Lot of Human Resources researchers and practitioners are confusing between creating a friendly and agreeable business environment for people to work with flexible and motivating conditions, and the practice of decision-making and accountability.
很多的人資研究者對於創造一個友善互相同意的工作環境來提供有彈性及激勵條件,還是要實踐決策及責任感到困惑。

This confusion expanded to a certain level that some Human Resources practitioners consider that Management is a Democracy, based on some important practices such as the transparency in internal communication, motivation policies, team work culture, flexible time schedule, open door policy, and other practices implemented to increase the level of comfort and satisfaction at the employees’ level.
這種混淆擴張到某種狀況,以至於有些人資認為管理是一種民主決策,是以內部溝通的透明度,績效政策,團隊文化,彈性時間,公開政策,以及其他基於增加員工的舒適度及滿意度的方法。

Does this mean that Management is a Democracy?
管理真的適合民主嗎?

In this post, I will try to put the light on this dilemma.
這篇文章中,我會專注在這個問題上。

What is a Democracy?
甚麼是民主?

At the most basic level, it is a type of government or political system ruled by citizens, people who are members of a society. In a democracy, citizens hold some level of power and authority, and they participate actively in the political, or decision-making, process of their government.
基本來說,民主是一種由公民運作的政府或政治制度,公民就是社會的一部份。在民主制度中,公民傭有權利及授權,參與公眾事務,以政府流程做出決策。

(http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-democracy-definition-types-principles.html)

What is an Organization?
組織是甚麼?

Basically, an organization in its simplest form (and not necessarily a legal entity, e.g., corporation or LLC) is a person or group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall, common goal or set of goals.
基本上,組織是一個人或一群人有意地完成特定一個或複數個目標。

(http://managementhelp.org/organizations/definition.htm)

At an Organization level, when it comes to Execution, let us agree that there is no room for Compromise, hence, let us dissect the definitions and try to analyze and find if there are similarities or commonalities between their elements.
在組織等級,當牽涉到執行的時候,我們都同意沒辦法妥協,因此,讓我們分析定義試著去分析找到在它們之間的相似性。

Principles of a Democracy
民主的原理

To understand the Democracy principles, we should be aware of the following to understand the real meaning of the participation of the citizens in the political, or decision-making process of the government.
為了瞭解民主的原理,我們應該知道在政治上公民參與的意義,政府決策的過程。

The people/citizens who are living in a certain geographic area are in the global majority born in this area, under a specific constitution, specific policy, specific laws and rules that can be challenged and customized according to the needs and expectations of the majority.    住在一個地區的公民,意思是出生在此地區的人,可以依照需求及大多數人的期待來制定特定的憲章,政策,法律,規則。

The citizens (in their majority), elect their leader(s) by their own choice and will.
大多數的公民,依照意願選出他們的領袖。

The election process in itself is a process of accountability from the people to their leaders. Good leaders are re-elected and bad leaders are rejected.
選舉的流程是一個從人民到領袖的責任流程。好的領袖被選上,壞的領袖則被拒絕。

The majority decides who is the Governor and they accept his attitudes and decisions as long as these are in line with their goals and objectives, ie expectations.
多數人決定誰來管理,並同意這個人的態度及決策。只要那些決策符合他們的目標及期待。

In any democracy, the government serves the citizens and works for their wellbeing, security, prosperity, stability and development. The Global Policy (External and Internal), is defined to respond specifically the citizens’ expectations.    在任何民主制度中,政府在福利,安全,經濟,穩定,發展等面向服務公民。簡單來說就是回應特定的公民期待。

As a conclusion, the decision making process is simply driven by the Majority of the people / citizens.
結論就是,決策制定的流程就是多數決。

Principles of an Organization
組織的原則

The Organization is a group of people (Shareholders, Management and employees) working all together for specific common goals and objectives. This has a different understanding and a different concept, described as per the following:
組織就是一群人(包含股東,管理層,員工)一起為了特定目標共同工作。接著我們提一些不同於民主的概念:

The majority of people in an organization are the employees. They are employed to serve the common goals and objectives that are for the pure benefit of these shareholders.
組織內大多數的人是員工,員工是為了特定的目標所服務,而這目標通常是幫助股東獲利。

Laws, policies, rules and regulations of the organization are all designed for the best interest of the organization and hence of the shareholders.
組織的法律,政策,規則都是以組織及股東的觀點設計。

The Leaders acting for the management are not elected but assigned by the shareholders through the Board of Directors to EXECTUE and reach the expected goals and objectives.
管理層的領導者並非由選舉而挑選,而是被股東所指派來執行被期待的目標。

The shareholders are the supreme beneficial owners, hence they are the only and exclusive authority to practice the process of accountability. If the Chairman / CEO is performing, he is awarded and if not, he is terminated and replaced.    股東是獲利的擁有者,因此他們擁有唯一且獨斷的決策權,執行長做得好,就被獎勵,做不好就換人。

The shareholders approve or decide who the Chairman is and or the CEO. They decide who should lead the organization and who is entrusted to EXECUTE the mission to achieve the defined Goal(s).
股東決定誰是執行長。他們決定誰來領導這個組織,誰被信任可以執行任務,達到特定目標。

It is the responsibility of the CEO to manage and deploy the right resources in the right place at the right time for the right EXECUTION. He should DECIDE to perform and remain in full harmony with the assignment of the shareholders.    執行長的責任就是管理並調整資源在正確的時間到正確的位置。他負責執行股東的任務。

Although the very advanced practices of Performance Management and Employees’ Appraisal processes, still, these are always designed to respond to the ultimate ONE GOAL decided by the upper authority, the shareholders. And this creates the escalated accountability system.    雖然有各種先進的績效評核系統,但這些系統都用來反映特定目標,股東的目標。這創造責任鍊。

In any Organization, the people, meaning the employees and management, work to serve the shareholders’ common objectives and expectations, to protect their rights, to increase their wealth and ensure their prosperity, while competing internally for self-development.
在任何組織中,成員,通常是員工及管理層,是用來服務股東的目標及期待,護他們的權利,增加他們的財富。

As a conclusion, the decision-making process is simply driven by the shareholder(s).
因此做個結論,決策流程是由股東驅動的。

Analysis of the principles
分析這些原則

People in a Democracy are the citizens, the mass and the ultimate “beneficial owners”, People in an Organization are the employees.
在民主制度的人是公民,獲得利潤的人。在組織中的人叫做員工。

Government in a Democracy is the sponsor of the execution of the people’s objectives, Management in an Organization is the sponsor of the execution of the shareholders’ objectives.
在民主制度的政府是用來執行人民目標的支持者。組織中的管理者是用來執行股東的目標的人。

As described, it is obvious that the principles of a Democracy are different than the principles of an Organization since (i) the basics, (ii) the mechanics, and (iii) the objectives are different.
如前述,顯然民主的原則與組織的原則不管從基底,運作及目標都不同。

While in a Democracy the government serves the citizens ie the people, in an Organization the people serve the shareholders. So the roles are completely inverted.
民主制度中,政府是服務公民,在組織中,人民服務股東。所以角色完全相反。

The decision-making process in a Democracy is very elastic since it should always be in line with the majority of the citizens and ensure the expectations of these citizens. The elasticity comes from the dynamic internal and external factors that might sometimes change the priorities and the needs of the people. Referendums and elections can consequently change the goals and objectives.
民主制度的決策流程是有彈性的因為他是從大多數公民及他們的期待而來。這彈性是由這群人外在及內在可能隨時改變的參數而來。選舉就會反映他們的目標。

The decision-making process in an Organization is rigid since it should ensure the right execution of the business plan to reach the specific goals and objectives that usually are not easily negotiable. Flexibility is only considered in case of major effects that are scientifically analyzed by the ultimate beneficial owners prior to any change. The Chairman / CEO cannot but follow the defined guidelines and take decisions accordingly.
在組織內的決策是固定的,因為目標都正確執行商業計畫,達到特定目標。而且不可協商。彈性只有在股東的利益前才存在。執行長只能接受並執行。

Conclusion
結論

Can we say that Management is a Democracy?
管理適合民主嗎?

This simple analysis that I conducted didn’t show any basic or situational or technical similarity, it didn’t show any commonality as well.
這簡單的分析讓我們發現這兩者並不一致,一點也不相同。

Decision-making in a Democracy as mentioned is elastic, it derives from the people, who are the base, the bottom, where decision-making in an Organization is rigid since it is imposed from the top.
在民主制度中的決策是彈性的,從人民而來的,從基層而來的。組織中的決策是固定從上而下的。

Chairman and CEO of an Organization should live with the absence of elasticity and make sure that all the decisions are taken in the direction of reaching the goals. In some situations, people can have a say at a very limited tactical level, but the ultimate spirit of the decision-making process is never negotiable, leaders cannot compromise, they have to EXECUTE.
組織的執行長不應該有彈性,應該是確保決策都依照目標的方向前進,在一些情形下,底層可以建議一些戰術方案,但大精神是不可妥協的,領導者不能妥協,領導者只能執行。

Management IS NOT a Democracy! No one can have a say in the decision making-process. Discussions and concertation are a must, but only for a better and optimized EXECUTION, and never to change a decision.
因此管理與民主不同!在決策流程沒有人可以插嘴。討論及商量當然是必要的,但只是為了有更好的執行效率,而不是改變決策。

Management IS NOT a Democracy, but it is a very complex decision-making process allowing to allocate the right resources in the right place at the right time to harmonize and synchronize all these resources to achieve the common goals and objectives. All those who comply remain IN, all those who don’t are simply rejected by the system.
管理決不是民主的,但管理是一個為了把在正確的時間正確的資源投注到正確的地方達到特定目標的一個複雜決策流程。同意的人就繼續幹,不同意的就離開。

Is it a Democracy? Definitely NOT.
這是民主嗎?顯然不是。

Is it Healthy? Definitely YES,
這有幫助嗎?顯然是的。

If Democracy is considered in Management, it converts an Organization in a chaotic environment, leading to disruption, lack of accountability, lack of execution, lack of leadership, lack of success.
假如在管理中考慮民主制度,那麼就會把組織變為一個混亂的環境,干擾,缺乏責任,執行效率低落,沒有人負責領導,當然不會成功。

Opened discussions, transparent communication and concertation should always be considered for the right Execution of the Decisions.
公開討論,透明溝通及專注是為了正確執行決策才必須。

DEMOCRACY IS NOT A GOOD RECIPE FOR SUCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT.
因此若要實行優秀管理,民主顯然並非一個好方法。

All information and Content of this post are the property of the author (Rebel Hanna). The Content is protected by copyright laws, trademark and design rights. Any unauthorized use of the Content will be considered a violation of the author’s intellectual property rights. Unless otherwise stated in this document, the author’s reserve all tacit and direct rights to patents, trademarks, copyrights or confidential information relating to the Content. Unless otherwise stated in this document, no Content may be copied, distributed, published or used in any way, in whole or in part, without prior written agreement and consent from the author. ©
(本文為Rebel Hanna所撰寫,已獲原作者同意翻譯)

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